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EXPERIMENTS DEVELOPED

A FEW TYPICAL EXPERIMENTS

Our products developed, mostly, have the end use of performing experiments. Development of experiment goes hand in hand with the equipment as also prescribed syllabi. Of the many experiments developed, some are listed below:


LABORATORY/ COURSE/EQUIPMENT EXPERIMENT
ANALOG COMPUTER
  • To solve differential equations
  • To simulate 1st,2nd,3rd order system on analog computer
  • To simulate common non linearities-dead band, saturation, backlash etc.
  • To use analog memory pair to solve split value boundary problem
TRANSFER FUNCTION ANALYSER
  • Plot Open & closed loop Frequency response of feedback control system (0.001 Hz to 100kHz)
  • Plot Open & closed loop Phase response of feedback control system (0.001 Hz to 100kHz)
  • Obtain time domain response of feedback control systems to square and ramp waveforms
  • Design compensation circuits for desired response of a feedback control system
DIGITAL MULTIMETERS 3-1/2 DIGITS AND 4-1/2 DIGITS
  • To measure & compare the loading effect of a DMM and an AVO  meter
  • To measure the linearity of AC to DC conversion in DMM and compare it to that of an  an AVO meter
  • To investigate the error components in measurement of AC, DC & Resistance by DMM and AVO meters
REGULATED POWER SUPPLIES
  • To develop test set for measurement of Line & Regulation of DC regulated Power Supplies & then measure the parameters.
  • To measure ripple & noise in DC regulated power supplies
  • To measure the effect of ground loops on the above measurements
  • To measure the transient recovery time of DC power Supplies and observe its effect on switching circuits.
  • To measure the output impedance of regulated power supplies.
  • To measure the efficiency of series regulator and measure all components of losses and correlate
BASIC ELECTRONICS       LABORATORY
1. NETWORK THEOREMS
2. DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS
3.POWER ELECTRONICS
4. POWER SUPPLIES
5. OSC. & MULTIVIBRATORS
6. AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS
7. WAVEFORM GENERATORS
8. DIGITAL CIRCUITS
9. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
10. FILTER CIRCUITS
  • To verify all the network theorems
  • To obtain the characteristics of devices-diodes, diacs, LED’s, bipolar transistors, Junction Field effect transistors, MOSFETS, SCR’s, Triacs
  • To obtain ac signal parameters from the plots obtained earlier-dynamic resistance, h parameters, transconductance etc and verify the same from published data sheets
  • To determine I/P, O/P resistance; gain & phase frequency response of BJT & FET amplifiers in the three basic configurations.
  • To configure amplifier in series, shunt, series-shunt, shunt-series feedback modes and measure I/P, O/P resistance; frequency response
  • To configure different RC oscillators, verify the applicable frequency formula and measure frequency stability as a function of component tolerance and power supply variation.
  • To configure a bistable multivibrator and obtain the highest toggle frequency as limited by 1. Device type and 2. Commutating capacitor for same device.
  • To configure a astable multivibrator and 1.plot its frequency vs RC and 2. Determine its 1. Lowest & 2 fastest operating frequency
  • To measure efficiency improvement by free wheeling diode in thyristor controller for RL  load.
LABORATORY COURSEWARE IN DIGITAL TECHNIQUES
  • A lab course in digital techniques for Junior Engineers at DOT for electronic exchanges
  • A lab course in Digital Electronics for Diploma programmes in Delhi, UP, Haryana, Himachal, Punjab & Rajasthan
  • A course on 8085 Microprocessors
IC TESTERS
  • Measure TTL family static characteristics on IC tester
  • Measure CMOS family static characteristics on IC tester
  • Measure Input bias current, offset voltage, open loop gain of Op Amps on Linear IC tester
LINEAR SYSTEM LAB
  • Plotting Frequency/Phase response of Operational Amplifier as Inverter, Non inverter and as Summer for different gains
  • Measurement of Input Resistance of Operational Amplifier as Inverter, Non inverter and as Summer for different gains
  • Measurement of Output Resistance of Operational Amplifier as Inverter, Non inverter and as Summer for different gains
  • Determination  of Gain Band Width product of Operational Amplifier
  • Measurement of Slew Rate of Operational Amplifier
  • Measurement of Common Mode Rejection Ration, Power Supply rejection ration ratio of Op Amp
  • Determine the Capture range & lock range of phase locked loop
  • Measure & Compare the linearity of VCO in CD 4046 and NE 565
  • Measure switching time of high speed comparator NE 529.
INSTRUMENTATION & PROCESS CONTROL LAB
  • Measure linearity of LVDT
  • Determine  Guage Factor of Strain gauge
  • Measure Linearity of Angular displacement sensor and linearize it using Diode Function Generator used in Linear Systems lab
  • Plot characteristics of 3 kinds of thermocouples. PTC and NTC thermistors, using PT 100 as standard.
  • Plot response of LDR and photo diode and Photo transistor
  • Build phase sensitive detector using:
  • Diode bridge, and
  • Using centre tapped transformer.
  • Build discrete transistor equivalent of integrated temp sensor.
  • Build signal conditioning circuit for a turbine type flow meter
  • Build undernoted building blocks:
  • Voltage Buffer, Instrumentation Amplifier, Differential Amplifier, power amplifier-then build as many feedback control systems out of these and available sensors in lab-e.g. light control system.
  • Experiment on temperature control process with temp control of moving stream of air with PID controller. Input is the step inputs to the open-loop system to determine the nature of the transfer function between the set value and the output of the temperature sensor.
  • Experiment on input as step inputs to the open-loop system to determine the nature of the transfer function between the set value and the output of the temperature sensor.
  • Experiment on how the open-loop behavior influences the behavior of the closed-loop system under on-off control.
  • Experiment on how to obtain the open-loop frequency response data for a thermal system and use it to predict the onset of closed-loop instability.
DIGITAL & MICROPROCESSOR LAB
  • A set of equipment for a course in combinational logic
  • A set of equipment for a course in sequential logic
  • A set of equipment for a course in microprocessors
  • A set of equipment based on bread boards to enable prototyping
COMMUNICATION  LAB
  • To synthesize a waveform of arbitrary shape and determine its Fourier components
  • To determine the sidebands in an AM, AM-SC, FM system
  • To compare the performance of AM & FM systems with respect to noise
  • To determine error probability of two different receivers.
  • Design a 2 channel FDM communication system and build it.
  • Design a 2 channel TDM system and build it.
  • Observe the effect on signal fidelity and cross talk as sampling frequency and sampling pulse width is changed. Use a Distortion Meter to measure loss in signal fidelity.
  • Observe the effect on signal fidelity and cross talk as carrier frequency and filter band width width is changed.
  •  Use a Distortion Meter to measure loss in signal fidelity. Comment on the duality of Time and
  • frequency domain.
  • Comparative experimental study of AM-DSB, AM-SC-DSB; AM-SC-SSB; FM, ASK, FSK and PSK , PAM, PWM, PPM
  • Comparative experimental study of PCM, Delta/Sigma Delta
  • Observation of different types of signal formatting
  • Observation of error correction schemes.
  • Measurement of quantization noise and its control
  • To observe reflection and multiple reflection on a transmission line.
  • To measure the attenuation along the transmission line.
  • To measure the velocity of propagation along the transmission line.
  • To measure the characteristic impedance of a transmission line.
  • To study the effect of mis – matching transmission line.
  • To study the effect of terminating line in different loads
FIBRE OPTICS COMMUNICATION LAB
  • Setting up of Fibre Optics Analog & Digital Link
  • Measurement of frequency response of the Analog & Digital  link     
  • To plot VI characteristic of photo transmitter & detector
  • Study of loss in optical Fibres, measure NA, and generate & interpret eye diagrams.                       
RADIO/TV LAB
  • Test the performance of the CTV receiver as Per relevant  ISI
  • Test the performance of the CTV receiver as Per relevant  ISI
  • Troubleshoot the CTV/BW receiver as per fault simulators given on the equipment.
MICROWAVES COMMUNICATION  LAB
  • To study the characteristics of the reflex Klystron tube
  • To determine the frequency and wave length in a rectangular waveguide
  • To determine the standing-wave-ratio and reflection coefficient
  • To determine the unknown impedance
  • To study the V – I characteristic of Gunn Diode
  • The measure the polar pattern and the gain of a waveguide Horn antenna
  • To plot the radiation pattern of different antennae
  • To experimentally observe the function of all the microwave components provided
PHYSICS Lab
(Superconductivity)
  • Demonstration of The Meissner Effect,  Frictionless Bearing, energy storage toroid and levitation
  • Experiment on measuring the critical temperature using the Meissner effect  using the four point electrical probe 
  • To obtain a plot  resistance versus temperature
  • Experiment on Determining the Critical Current Density
  • Experiment on Determining the Critical Magnetic Field
  • Plot of scusceptibility vs temp
PHYSICS Lab
Experiments on Wave Propogation of light
  • Study of diffraction using Plane Transmission Grating (for two incident wave lengths) and finding wavelength/ grating element
  • Study  of diffraction using Plane Reflection grating ( for two incident wave lengths) and finding wavelength/ grating element    
  • Study of Single Slit diffraction pattern and finding slit width
  • Study of Pin Hole diffraction pattern and finding pin hole diameter
  • Study of polarization
  • Study of half wave & quarter plate properties
  • Demonstration of strains in optical materials
  • Study of Elliptically and Circularly polarized light
  • Measurement of refractive Index of prism
  • Measurement of Brewster angle of glass plate
  • Demonstration of total internal reflection
  • Verification of Snell’s law
  • Measurement of wedge angle of a glass plate
  • Setting up of Path Length Modulation System (Michelson Interferometer)
  • Temporal coherence using Michelson interferometer
PHYSICS LAB-OTHER EXPTS
  • Experiment on Addition of Forces by Vector Methods
  • Experiment to verify the parallelogram law of vector addition by using a force table
  • Experiment on equilibrium of concurrent force
  • Experiment on Kinematics on an Inclined Plane
  • Experiment on Speed of a Projectile
  • Experiment on Newton’s Second Law
  • Experiment on The Force of Gravity
  • To show that a body launched horizontally will fall vertically at the same rate as a similar freely falling body.
  • Experiment on Projectile Motion using Photo gates
  • Experiment on Projectile Range versus Angle
CONTROL SYSTEMS LAB
  • To determine the open loop transfer function of all the blocks viz. integrator, time constant, uncommitted amplifier and error detectors/adders experimentally
  • To determine the first order (type 0 & type1) open loop system response for various input signals like unit step, ramp, square wave etc.
  • To determine the closed loop response of first and second order systems.
  • To study disturbance rejection of closed loop system
  • Study of the relay characteristics and display of the same on CRO for different values of hysteresis and dead zones.
  • Study of the effect of hysteresis on system stability
  • Phase plane analysis of relay control system for various values of Hysterisis and Dead Zones.
  • Operation of the position control system for different values of the forward gain to angular position commands
  • Step response studies for various values of forward gain
  • Study of the effect of velocity feedback on the transient and steady state performance of the system as well as its stability
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB
  • Standard experiments like Torques Speed    Characteristics, VI Characteristics, machine efficiency, protection mechanisms etc.
APPLIED MECHANICS LAB
  • Standard experiments